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Using Perl to process fields

Tuesday, February 22, 2005 | 0 comments

Kees de Koster asked in the Dutch newsgroup nl.comp.os.linux.programmeren a solution to his problem. Given the following text input:


multiply the four numbers after the '=' character on each line with the number 4.

An awk solution was posted by Eric Moors and a Perl solution by Kees Pol. I replied to the latter posting with some recommendations / critique, and a very short Perl program based on the awk solution by Eric:

#!perl -naF[=,]
		printf "%14s=%0.02f,%0.02f,%0.02f,%0.02f,%d\n",
		    $F[ 0 ], ( map { $_ * 4 } @F[ 1..4 ] ), $F[ 5 ];

How the Perl program works

At the first line of the Perl program are three options specified that do most of the work, explained below:

The -n switch makes Perl read the contents of the file(s) specified after the script, i.e. it assumes the following loop around the script:

		while ( <> ) {
		    ...  # the script goes here

The -a switch turns on autosplit mode (works only in combination with -n or -p). The implicit split to the @F array is done as the first thing inside the implicit while loop as given above:

		while ( <> ) {
		    @F = split( ' ' );
		    ...  # the script goes here

The -F specifies the pattern to split on when the -a switch is used. In the above script I split on , or = using a character class. This breaks the lines, as given above, in 6 elements of which the second up to and including the fifth are multiplied by the number 4.

Note: I used %14s instead of %14i since the first value on each input line doesn't fit in an integer suitable for %d on the platform I use; Windows XP. When I used %14i, the number -1 was displayed in the first column of the result.

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